(art)n Artists: 

Ellen Sandor and Pete Latrofa, (art)n

Collaborative Artists: 

Debra S. Kolodczak
Dr. Kerry S. Grant
Dr. Russ Miller
Dr. Jeffery Tilson

Historic images from Buffalo's 1901 Pan-American Exposition
used with permission from the Collection of Dr. Kerry S. Grant.
Special thanks to Adam Koniak, Alice Mao and the Center for

Computational Research and the Department of Media Study, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY


Virtual Photograph


Duratrans, Kodalith, Plexiglas


The University of Buffalo's Center for Computational Research (CCR)



"Buffalo's 1901 Pan-American Exposition 2001" is an immersive PHSCologram artwork produced by Debra Kolodczak, and an ensemble team at the Center for Computational Research and the Department of Media Study, at the University at Buffalo in New York, and Chicago-based collective (art)n.

The PHSCologram (pronounced skol-o-gram) enables a unique time-based translation of combining more than 20 historic paintings within a virtual 3D environment to represent Buffalo's 1901 Pan-American Exposition. The work includes the Temple of Music, noted for the location where President William McKinley, the Twenty-Fifth President of the United States was assassinated. The Temple of Music building was extensively photographed using the era's latest black & white technology, but no records exist that accurately portray the exact colors of the environment. Referring to artist's renderings and written descriptions from 1901, the 3D rendered model of the Temple of Music provides a suggestive color representation based on scholarly research.